A patchwork of public land on both sides of the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Timucuan Preserve protects sites of historic, cultural, and ecological interest.
Its full name is Timucuan Ecological and Historical Preserve, and its units are scattered from Mayport north to Amelia Island.
Most sites are directly tied to the indigenous people of this region, the Timucua, and their interactions with the Europeans who attempted to settle here.
This is a well-interpreted National Park, with signage filling in the mysteries that surround this region’s long and storied history.
Resources for exploring the area
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Visitor Center: 30.385751, -81.497519
Address: 12713 Fort Caroline Rd, Jacksonville
Restroom: At some units
Land manager: National Park Service
Based at Fort Caroline, the Visitor Center is open 9 AM to 5PM Wed-Sun. Other hours vary by unit. Some close on Christmas and Thanksgiving.
Accessible facilities are available at Fort Caroline, Kingsley Plantation, Ribault Column, and Spanish Pond.
Dogs are welcome, but must be leashed.
About the Park
Timucuan Preserve protects many items of antiquity where Europeans first set foot in what is now Florida.
Perhaps the most ancient is a massive midden along the shores of the St. Johns River, reached by hiking the trails of the Theodore Roosevelt Area.
Adjoining this rugged, forested waterfront and not far by foot is Spanish Pond, site of an encampment of Spaniards from St. Augustine.
Led by Pedro Menendez de Aviles, their mission was to slaughter the French who established a colony along the river at Fort Caroline.
On a bluff above both of these sites is the Ribault Column, a marker denoting where the French disembarked their ships to claim Florida for France in 1562.
Florida’s last remaining public car ferry, the Mayport Ferry, is a piece of history itself.
It serves as an official route across the St. Johns River connecting Timucuan Preserve via the East Coast Greenway.
The ride between Mayport and Northshore is a short trip and lets you avoid taking Interstate 295 to cross the river on the high Dames Point Bridge.
North of the river, the National Park encompasses a massive sweep of estuary surrounding public lands managed by the state and county.
Peninsulas jut into the marshes in many directions, including Cedar Point, another far-flung piece of Timucuan Preserve.
Amid the salt marshes are a smattering of islands among the tidal rivers and creeks that feed the mighty St. Johns basin.
A large part of Fort George Island is a state park. Drive its scenic loop to reach another part of Timucuan Preserve on the northern tip of the island.
Interpretive tours and signage guide you through the the well-preserved remains of Kingsley Plantation, a cotton and sugar cane plantation from 1799.
Barrier islands along the Atlantic Coast edge the National Park’s marshlands on their west side, with beaches and camping at state parks.
At the mouth of the St. Johns River across from Mayport, Little Talbot Island State Park was a segregated beach for Blacks in the 1950s and 60s.
Home to high bluffs defining its oceanfront, Big Talbot Island is more wild, its beach in a constant state of erosion.
The East Coast Greenway runs the length of the island as the Timucuan Trail, a paved bike path.
On Amelia Island, Timucuan Preserve interprets the story of American Beach, a safe haven for Blacks from 1935 through the end of segregation in Florida.
Established by A. L. Lewis, president of the Afro American Insurance Company in Jacksonville, it was an early oceanfront vacation community.
American Beach is also home to the tallest dune on the Atlantic Coast of Florida.
Explore Timucuan Preserve
Units of Timucuan Preserve in Duval and Nassau Counties
At the site of the original French settlement in Florida, explore the rich natural and cultural history of the region at the Timucuan Preserve visitor center, Fort Caroline, and its interpretive nature trail.
On a high bluff above the St. Johns River, a memorial pays tribute to the French expedition led by Jean Ribault that claimed Florida for France in 1562, three years before St. Augustine was founded.
Interpreting the Spanish attack on nearby Fort Caroline from an encampment on this pond, Spanish Pond connects via the Spanish Pond Trail to the Theodore Roosevelt Area.
Theodore Roosevelt Area
Hike 3.1 miles looping around an ancient midden fronting the St. Johns River on this scenic hike honoring the conservation legacy of Willie Brown, who preserved his coastal forest for us to enjoy.
Home to the largest dune system on the Atlantic Coast in Florida, American Beach has a rich history as a vacation destination that served the African-American community during the days of segregation in the South.
One of the historic treasures of Timucuan Preserve in Jacksonville, Kingsley Plantation interprets the everyday lives of free and enslaved peoples on an early Florida plantation.
Public lands within Timucuan Preserve
Pumpkin Hill Creek Preserve State Park
Within city limits yet truly wild, Pumpkin Hill Creek Preserve State Park protects more than 4,000 acres along the edges of enormous estuaries draining into the St. Johns River
Betz-Tiger Point Preserve
On a peninsula where the Timucua used the surrounding estuary for sustenance, Betz-Tiger Point Preserve provides more than six miles of breezy trails
Fort George Island Cultural State Park
With layer upon layer of human habitation atop the highest natural hill on the southeastern Atlantic Coast, Fort George Island offers a long look at the past.
Little Talbot Island State Park
With one of the closest wild beaches to Jacksonville, Little Talbot Island State Park is a heavily visited park, and not just for its beaches. Paddling in the estuaries and camping amid the dunes are popular pastimes, too.
Big Talbot Island State Park
For a taste of tidal pools and black rock beaches in Florida, get out of your car and walk down to the unique shoreline of Big Talbot Island State Park.
Amelia Island State Park
The thud of horse’s hooves on sand makes for a unique experience at Amelia Island State Park, the only Florida State Park where you can ride horses on the beach
See our photos from Timucuan Preserve
More worth exploring while you’re in this area.
Jacksonville Arboretum & Gardens
For a surprising diversity of habitats and hilly terrain, the Jacksonville Arboretum and Gardens is a hidden treasure for hikers and a bonanza for botanical delights
Kathryn Abbey Hanna Park
With cool ocean breezes and a plunge in the surf after your hike, the 2.7-mile hiking loop at Kathryn Abbey Hanna Park in Jacksonville is a great choice for a summer outing
Egans Creek Greenway
Northeast of Jacksonville in Fernandina Beach, Egans Creek Greenway is a protected area of over 300 acres that runs north to south along Egans Creek.
Yellow Bluff Fort Historic State Park
On a peninsula near the mouth of the St. Johns River, Yellow Bluff Fort Historic State Park protects a slice of Florida history from the War Between the States.